4 speed manual transmission identification

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4 speed manual transmission identificationAfter all, GM car manufacturers used 13 different types of four-speeds over the years. Some had specific uses, so you can narrow it down to a shortlist based on the vehicle make and model. It’s helpful to begin with the basics to make it easier to understand. What Does the Transmission Do. There are three types of transmissions or gearboxes that you’ll see in order from first to latest technologies: Manual Automatic Continuously variable transmission (CVT) Its primary purpose is to create a balance between speed and torque, or the power needed to move a vehicle forward. The differences between the types speak to the ways that it occurs. The engine and the wheels operate at different speeds, with the former turning at faster rotations per minute (RPM) than the wheels. When you turn on your vehicle, it’ll need to draw on a lot of power to get it moving. A higher torque, therefore, is necessary. On the other end of the spectrum, you don’t need as much power output when you’re driving on the expressway, hence, the need for balance. A manual transmission is an enclosed box consisting of different sized gears, rods, meshes, shafts, cogs, and other parts, all encased in oil to keep things running smoothly. The gear ratio describes the relationship between the different components. Each gear represents a varying combination of them that, in turn, produce a specific power-speed output. It’s not unlike what you’d see on a bicycle. The first stick-shift vehicles had three-speed transmissions and lasted up until the 1960s. As the technology caught up, the industry moved toward four-speed ones. There’s no denying how fun a car with a stick shift is to cruise on the highway whether it’s a Chevy Corvette or a Ford Mustang. It puts you closer to the road and the driving experience. That brings the discussion to the Chevy 4 speed manual transmission identification. Both the outside and the inside provide vital clues to determining what kind you have, beginning with the brand.

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Types of Manual Transmissions GM has since moved on to different technologies. The four-speed is a relic of the past with innovation pushing the bounds to nine- and even ten-speed gearboxes. Each of the 13 four-speed manual transmissions had a specific application. That of itself is the first step toward a positive ID. Right away, you’ve narrowed the field. The run-of-the-mill vehicle probably has either the Borg-Warner or Saginaw. Muncie, on the other hand, is a different animal. It’s one that you’re more likely to find in high-duty or performance rides. The automaker used some models only on certain types of vehicles. So, if you have a car, the chances are you won’t find one meant for a truck under the hood. They also used different ones for certain years, the term referring to the date of the model and not a calendar date. Steps to Identifying a Four-Speed Manual Transmission The first step toward a positive ID is to figure out what is the brand of the part. Fortunately, that task is easier than it sounds. Each of the top makes has a distinct shape. The entire transmission has a main case, side cover, and extension housing. The general form is the main box with a telescoping tube attached at the other end. Shape and Parts Borg-Warner is the most clear-cut. It has box portion has a straight end. The other part has a gradual narrowing with an abrupt smaller finish. The Saginaw is not as wide. The end of the case appears rounded with at least two visible protrusions. Finally, the Muncie falls somewhere in between. It is boxy like the Borg-Warner but with a slight curve. It also has two bumps along the edge. The telltale difference between the Borg-Warner and the other two is the number of bolts on the side cover. It has nine, whereas the Saginaw and Muncie have seven. You can tell the two apart by looking for the reverse lever. On the former, it’s on the side cover. On the latter, you’ll find it on the extension housing. Other parts to examine include the selector arms, noting how it’s attached to the main unit. Model Specifics Each model within the make’s line typically has slight variations that can pinpoint a range or maybe even a specific year. The Borg-Warner T10, for example, has a long run in cars between 1957-1988 and a brief one between 1968-1970 in vans. The T4 and T4C also had short spans. The T4 was only between 1983-1984 in cars and 1985-1987 in trucks. The TC4 lasted for 1982-1984. Sometimes, you can home in on the details by knowing the make and model of the vehicle in which it was found. The Saginaw manual transmission existed in cars from 1966-1984. However, it only stuck around between 1985-1986 in the Astro and Safari. On a side note, neither vehicle made a go of it either, with both going out of production too. A similar tale exists with the Muncie. It is the youngest of the three. The M21 and M22 led things off for cars in 1963 going until 1974. The SM420 followed by the SM465 in 1968 held up the reins for the truck side until it ended in 1991. Materials The materials also vary with the make. Look at the construction. If the cover and case are cast-iron, it’s a Saginaw. If it has an aluminum cover, you’re looking at a Borg-Warner. However, some earlier versions had a cast-iron cover instead before making the switch to more weather-resistant materials. An all-aluminum transmission is a Muncie. If the four-speed manual transmission is a barn-find, the latter is probably still in decent shape. The others, not so much. It might be a good time to start checking out new truck prices. Casting Number All of the main parts of the transmission have a casting number that identifies the part and provides clues about when it was made. It is a physical trait, being within the mold. However, any vehicle manufacturer may tweak their designs. If an original one is modified, the casting number changes too. It is not interchangeable with the part number. It’s not unusual to find different casting numbers covered by the same part number. It’s the nature of the industry to change materials or refine a design. One thing that you can count on is that the casting numbers will get higher with each consecutive year. In other words, it’s newer. You may also notice the words, “PAT. PEND.” or “US PATENT NO” on a part which means, patent-pending or the official number, respectively. You can do a search on the US Patent and Trademark Office to home in on its date. It can identify the make too since the details of your search will include this info. The models of the Borg-Warner are T10, T4, and T4C. The last one was for trucks only. The casting numbers for the first one are either 13-04 or T10-XX. The second are 13-51 or 13-52. Finally, the last one is 13-53. Saginaw has one type of four-speed manual transmission, making the identification quicker after figuring out the make. The Muncie includes M20, M21, and M22. The distinction is the ratio with wide, close, and heavy-duty close, respectively. IDing the transmission requires a look inside of the case. You will need to count things like the splines or teeth of the gears. Noting its location in situ can also identify the variation. The M22 or so-called Rock Crusher usually partnered up with big-block engines. Serial Number The serial number is where the money shot lies. It offers a lot of information to complete the story of the four-speed manual transmission. This figure is usually stamped and not a part of the mold. It’s also easily faked if you have concerns about whether it’s genuine or not. They often include a code for the date for helping you authenticate it. However, it’s not always as easy to decipher as it sounds. Auto manufacturers often use unique codes even for something as mundane as a month name. Muncie is a perfect example. Muncie Serial Number The serial number begins with a P followed by the month and day. The letter denotes the plant in which the manual transmission was assembled. So, P0201 means February 1. They didn’t add the year until after 1966. But wait. It gets better. Instead of a simple number to designate the month, the manufacturer went to letters with A for January and so on. Unfortunately, that wasn’t the case. What you’ll see for the ones after May is as follows: H for June K for July M for August P for September R for October S for November T for December There is also another number to denote the particular ratio. A stands for M20, B for M21, and C for M22. To decode it, you’ll need these bits of information. For example, a Muncie with P4H15A translates to a Muncie M20 assembled on June 15, 1974. Presumably, abbreviating it with this serial number gives a compact stamp that saves time and space. Identifying the Rest of the Transmission Bear in mind that some transmissions may contain a hodge-podge of parts. You may think you have one brand. But, when you look inside, your so-called matching-numbers parts isn’t what it seems. That’s what makes knowing a vehicle’s history essential if it’s from an existing car or truck. You’re more likely to find a Saginaw or Borg-Warner intact and not necessarily rebuilt since the automaker used them on everyday models. The Muncie is the one that you need to check. Since it’s a performance part, it’s in high demand among collectors. Earlier versions may have components of later ones simply because the transmission and its housing were better made later in its production. Chevy 4 speed manual transmission identification isn’t difficult if you know what to look for in the part. Luckily, the makes are different enough to give you at least a starting point. Though the serial number convention is sometimes confusing, there is a method in the madness that makes knowing which one you have an easier task. Looking at the shape, materials, and structure of the main case, extension housing, and cover are excellent places to start in your search for a positive ID. The other information will help you get to its production date to begin the quest for its story. All rights reserved. The first and most obvious has to do with the size of a car’s engine. While the big-block vs.The discussion about whether to use a four-speed or an automatic transmission has been going on for as long as anyone can remember, and we see no end in sight. However, finding one of these transmissions now at a swap meet or salvage yard is getting harder and harder. If you do happen to stumble across one at a swap meet, do you know what you are actually looking at. Did you know that there are various models that were used in various cars. Hopefully, this guide can help you decipher what gear box you have located if you’re in need of a four speed, or if you are fortunate enough to happen across one stashed away in a barn somewhere. This early box began its career being placed in the Corvette. By 1963, the General had developed and worked with the Saginaw Corporation to develop a proprietary four-speed (based on components used in the Borg Warner transmission). Not only were they both popular transmissions in musclecars and Corvettes, but many were even used after the musclecar era. We have salvaged more than one Saginaw from cars like the Vega and Monza. This was used in A-body and F-body cars and Corvettes into the early ’80s. Of course, that was many years ago. It’s no secret that the Saginaw and Borg Warner transmissions were not built to handle the kind of power that a Muncie transmission could withstand. But in non-performance applications, they were still a good transmission. Keep in mind, if you plan to drop one in a vehicle that makes more power than it did when it was stock, you might want to consider going with the Muncie if you plan to beat on it. Basically, if you are installing one or the other in a car that will be a nice driver and see only minimal, spirited gear grabbing, both the Saginaw and the Borg Warner can be a good and less expensive alternative to the more robust Muncie. Even the Muncie has its limitations, but they are significantly higher than the Saginaw or Borg Warner. The Muncie is made of aluminum, and will not be rusty looking. The easiest was is by knowing the construction of each unit, and the differences are obvious. If the case and side cover are made of cast iron, that would make it a Saginaw transmission. If it has a cast iron case with an aluminum side cover and tail housing, that will mean you have found a Borg Warner. To add a little confusion to the mix, there were Borg Warner Transmissions that feature aluminum cases and cast-iron side covers. Differentiating is easy, as the Muncie has seven bolts holding the side cover, and the Borg Warner uses nine. Not only are the Saginaw and Borg Warner side cover and tail housings constructed of different materials, but the reverse shifter arm of a Saginaw is on the side cover while the T10 is located on the tail housing. These grooves are there to indicate the ratios of the gears inside the transmission. These numbers can be found on the transmission case, and the first letter in this series of numbers is going to tell you exactly which Saginaw transmission you are looking at. While it’s obvious that the four speed will use three shift-linkage arms and the three speed will have two, if the first letter is R, then you have found a four speed. If it starts with an S, you are looking at a three-speed Saginaw. If you are not sure how to distinguish between an M20, M21, or M22 Muncie, knowing what to look for can be tricky. However, there were several design upgrades and modifications made during the total production run. That being said, there was a second, close-ratio version (M22) that was developed to survive duty behind engines with a higher torque output, and was known as the “Rock Crusher.” This version was offered in high performance big-block cars starting with the 1965 Corvette.While the M21 and M22 did have the same gear ratios, the M22 did utilize a cluster gear with the gear teeth having different tooth angles. The M22 was designed as a road race transmission, and the straighter angle of the gear teeth produced less heat and less end-loading of the gears. This decreased helix angle of the gear not only created a stronger gear set, but it also produced a substantial amount of gear “whine” which is highly noticeable when driving the car. The M22 Rock Crusher used a gearset that features less of an angled-tooth gearing (right). Images courtesy If a car came with an axle ratio of 3.73 (or numerically higher), it usually came with a close-ratio transmission. Vehicles leaving the factory with an axle ratio of 3.55 and numerically lower gears, typically incorporated a wide-ratio transmission. The 1964 through 1968 Muncie side covers had a stud coming out of the side cover that secured the linkage arm via a nut. The 1969 and later models use a bolt to secure the linkage to the transmission. The Muncie utilized seven different input shafts. All transmissions with a 26-spline input shaft used a 32-spline output shaft, and all those with a 10-spline input shaft was paired with a 27-spline output shaft. These grooves were cut into the input shaft so assembly line workers at the plant could easily identify which input shaft should be installed in a particular unit. But, those built between 1963 and 1965 will not have any rings around the input shaft. Starting with the 1966 models, the wide ratio versions got two rings around the input shaft, and the M22 input shaft had no rings and looks like a 1963 through 1965 wide-ratio input shaft. Also, there were some input shafts produced by the aftermarket and General Motors that have no identifying rings on them. This is a large reason why some guys will not rely on transmission identification by the input shaft grooves. His passion for performance got him noticed by many locals, and he began helping them modify their vehicles. Through the 1950s, all makers were working on their own automatic transmission, with four more developed inside GM alone. All of GM's early automatic transmissions were replaced by variants of the Turbo-Hydramatic by the 1970s.Manually shifted on Column. ) The basic rear-wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic spawned two front-wheel drive variants, the transverse Turbo-Hydramatic 125, and the longitudinal Turbo-Hydramatic 425. A third variant was the light-duty rear wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic 180 used in many European models.Also manufactured and used by Holden as the Trimatic transmission. Ford led the design of the 10-speed transmission, as well as filing the design patents for said transmission. According to an official report by the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) the design of the 10-speed gearbox is essentially all Ford, while GM was responsible for designing the 9-speed 9T transverse automatic gearbox. As part of their joint-venture, Ford will let GM use the 10-speed transmission with rights to modify and manufacture it for their own applications.Retrieved 2019-07-16. Retrieved 2019-07-16. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Four-speeds were usually limited to pre-2000 vehicles. Borg-Warner Ford and General Motors equipped vehicles manufactured from 1957 to 1988 with the Borg-Warner T10. This transmission was available in a cast-iron case, and later an aluminum version. The four-speed featured nine-bolt covers, and 36-tooth synchro rings. The case was made of aluminum, with a seven-bolt cover and 36-tooth synchro rings. Trucks manufactured from 1948 to 1967 used the Muncie SM420 version; it featured a cast-iron case and non-synchronized first gear. Trucks manufactured through 1991 used the SM465 model. New Process New Process four-speed manual transmissions came in three versions. The low-gear 435 was found on 1964 to 1972 vehicles. The casting numbers starting at C-9, followed by four digits. Ford AOD Ford's AOD, four-speed automatic transmission was used by Mercury, Lincoln and F-Series pickup trucks. It featured a 14-bolt pattern on the cover, and weighed 150 pounds. References Manual Trans Reference GM 3, 4, 5 and 6 speeds V24 About the Author This article was written by the It Still Works team, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information. To submit your questions or ideas, or to simply learn more about It Still Works, contact us. VW Transmission Identification Ford 8.8 Differential Specifications 1987 GMC Truck Specifications Information About 5-Speed Transmission. The Difference Between The LQ4 And The. Saginaw and Borg Warner models are normally used on general purpose applications. Muncie transmissions are known for both high-performance and heavy-duty applications, with three different variations available: the M20, M21 and M22. Identification begins by visually identifying the units as Saginaw, Muncie or Borg Warner models and then by differentiating the three Muncie units visually and by decoding the serial number. Step 1 Inspect the transmission. Both Muncie and Saginaw transmissions have 7-bolt side covers, while the Borg Warner has a nine-bolt side cover, according to Year Also, the reverse lever on the Muncie units is mounted in the extension housing, while the Saginaw reverse lever is mounted in the side cover Step 2 Locate the serial number to differentiate 1969 and up Muncie transmissions. The transmission case has various codes including the casting code and the serial number. The serial number provides the date of manufacture, however, on 1969 and later transmissions there is a letter code at the end which identifies the gear-ratio, which is different on all three Muncie models. The Letters F, G, I, L, N,O and Q are omitted. Identify Muncie 1963 to 1967 transmissions. These Muncies have the same serial number format, minus the gear ratio designation, so a spline and gear tooth count must be done. According to Nasty, 1963 to 1965 M 20 transmissions have 10 splines and 24 input gear teeth, while 1966 and 1967 models have 10 splines and 21 input gear teeth. Tips The input shaft runs from the transmission to the engine and is part of the transmission. The splines are on the shaft going into the engine and the input gear goes into the transmission. This is illustrated at the top of the Year One Tech page, while the input gears are illustrated at the bottom (see Reference 2). Since the Muncie M 22 is a heavy-duty transmission, it is usually paired with high-torque big block engines and trucks. About the Author This article was written by the It Still Works team, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information. Photo Credits gear image by Snezana Skundric from More Articles Saginaw Transmission Identification How to Identify a Turbo-Hydromatic. How to Identify a Dodge Cummins 3500. How to Identify a Borg-Warner T-10. How to Identify Ford Automatic. Ford C4 Identification How do I Identify a Ford Differential. How to Tell the Difference Between a. We offer quality rebuilt manual transmission, parts and rebuild parts kits that are designed to be top of the line. After locating correct unit a link is supplied to provide detailed information on specific kit and parts that are available for your unit. Information is provided for General Motors 3 speed, 4 speed, 5 speed and 6 speeds manual transmissions. Those from 1955-68 may have electric overdrive. Some of 1964-65 units have larger gears with the same tooth count as the 1940-68 units. Fully synchronized with 30 tooth synchro rings. 1966-69 units may have electric overdrive. It has a four step cluster and all the gears are helical cut. Has case casting number T16-1X. Found in heavy duty applications. Fully synchronized with 36 tooth synchro rings. This is the only GM 3 speed with the same bearing front and rear. This transmission is found in performance applications. Fully synchronized with 36 tooth synchro rings. Same unit as Ford RAT except for a GM bolt pattern to the bell housing. Has R28-20-15 cluster gear. Found in heavy-duty applications. Casting number T10-XX or 13-04 are on passenger side of case. They all have 9-bolt side covers and 36 tooth synchro rings. Reverse shift lever is located in the extension housing, along with main shaft reverse which is a straight cut gear. Some of the early units, found mostly in Corvettes, have a front nut like the Muncie M21. 1984-88 units have overdrive. The side cover has 7 bolts and 2 shifter cams. The synchro rings have 36 teeth and the unit has a 4-step cluster gear. Reverse gears are helical cut and are located in the extension housing. The side cover has 7 bolts and 3 shifter cams. The synchro rings have 30 teeth and the unit has a 5-step cluster gear. Reverse gears are straight cut and are located in the main transmission case. Shifter assembly is attached to the top of the extension housing where the two arms meet. The main case is open at both ends, the bell housing.There is an internal single-rail shift linkage with the shifter mounted on top of the extension housing. Front and rear main bearings are ball type and the cluster gear has a shaft running through it, that is supported by loose needles. Case casting is number 13-53. Front and rear main bearings are tapered. The cluster gear is solid and is supported on each end by cylindrical roller bearings located in the case. Case castings numbers are 13-51 or 13-52. The Isuzu logo is cast into the left side of the case. Is not found in the Chevy LUV. It has a rectangular cast iron front bearing retainer and a 27 tooth rear output shaft. The front and rear countershaft bearings are both 25x62x17. Side-loaded with either aluminum or cast iron case and used in both gas and diesel applications. All of these units are 3 speeds with Overdrive. All gears on the countershaft are removable except for 1st. Early units have threads on the input shaft and do not have a front seal. Has GM casting numbers and one P.T.O. covers. Non-synchronized 1st with brass synchro rings for 2nd-4th. All main shaft gears ride on bushings pressed on the shaft. The only gears that are removable from the countershaft are 3rd and 4th. Has GM casting numbers and two P.T.O. covers. Non-synchronized 1st gear, synchronized 2nd-4th. There are no brass synchro rings. Casting number is C-9XXXX. All gears, including reverse, are helical cut. See New Process 435 for more information. Casting number is C-9XXXX The bell housing. is not part of this transmission. It has a removable tube that the throwout bearing rides on. The main bearing in this unit is comprised of caged needles in shell races. Loose needles and flat thrust bearings are used throughout the transmission. Casting number is 13-38. Limited parts availability. Isuzu logo is cast into the drivers side of the case. This is found only is GM diesel applications and has a different starter position than the unit that goes into the Isuzu vehicles. Aluminum case with top cover, internal single-rail shift with the shifter mounted on the extension housing. Casting numbers on the case, cover or extension housing are 13-51 or 13-52. 5th gear (overdrive) is located at the rear of the transmission in the extension housing. The cluster gear is supported on both ends by cylindrical roller bearings. The number on the front cluster gear is DK55836. All five synchro rings are brass. If you are unable, you can check the number of the front cluster bearing. The number on the front cluster gear bearing is 67010BCE.These similar transmissions have three different designs and designations. Teardown is necessary before ordering rebuild kit as the differences between them are integral. It is a fully synchronized Overdrive transmission (including reverse). It may be identified by a tag attached to the P.T.O. cover. The four main supporting bearings in this unit are tapered. Reference Guide Parts illustration. Your Top Tech Questions Answered! With help from Summit Racing’s tech advisors and other industry experts, we’ll answer those questions here at OnAllCylinders. Today’s topic: transmissions. It’s also a key question central to your vehicle’s performance, and it needs answered before you can proceed with a variety of performance or maintenance projects. Now, with help from Koval and the Summit Racing tech staff, we’ll help you figure out which specific automatic or manual transmission plants your vehicle’s rear wheels. According to Koval, the easiest way to identify an automatic transmission, though, is by transmission pan shape. “Almost all have their own shape and pan bolt design,” Koval said. “Some are square; others are shaped like Louisiana or Texas or some other comparable shape.” Find your pan shape—and ultimately your automatic transmission—in the images below: The good folks at Summit Racing also provided us with charts for that: Click on your standard transmission speed below and match your manual tranny to the external characteristics and diagram notes: How many bolts secure the cover to the main case and is one edge of the cover curved or straight?” Are there mounting studs protruding from the side case or are the selector arms secured with a bolt instead? Once you’ve made a positive ID, your sales rep or tech advisor can steer you in the right direction for transmission replacement components, performance upgrades, rebuild kits, and other items to help harness all your vehicle’s power. During his 20-year career in the auto industry, he has covered a variety of races, shows, and industry events and has authored articles for multiple magazines. He has also partnered with mainstream and trade publications on a wide range of editorial projects. In 2012, he helped establish OnAllCylinders, where he enjoys covering all facets of hot rodding and racing. What Transmission Do I Have? (and More) C9ZP7006A is the code on the side. Is this a C4 or FMX? Thanks. One has a casting number of 304065903 and 3 grooves. The other has a casting number 3088386 and 2 grooves. Help! We’d suggest a call to our partners in the Summit tech department: 330-630-0240. I am not sure how to identify what it is. It is an automatic I believe. You can verify the exact shape and pattern here. Can you tell me what it goes to and if it is worth keeping for someone who could use it. Thanks for any help. However, the shifter levers are on the front instead of the back. The number stamped in the housing is Z91008601, what transmission is this? That’s all I know. Mine is in primo condition and for sale minus the side shift levers. If interested call me at 530-626-6043. Transmission tag ID 02AQ223647. How can I tell if this is the original transmission or a replaced transmission. Thank you! Date 1-20-67; stamp by plug 2601100; stamp pat “bell” 670370126; stamp on tailshaft 2801097.Are this indentifications that I have a C5 transmission? Thank you. Check out this visual guide on different Ford transmission pan patterns, and this good guide on how to tell the difference between a C4 and C10. We’re pretty sure the R stamp refers to the servo type used. I wanted the same one.