engagement skills trainer est 2000 manual

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engagement skills trainer est 2000 manualAdditionally, units cannot get to major range complexes as often as they should or would like; therefore, more gunnery training must be done at home station using simulators, subcaliber training devices, and training-unique techniques. Training devices help fill the void caused by lack of resources and money. They cannot, however, replace or duplicate main gun firing or other vital aspects of gunnery or tactical training; their purpose is to augment training. Devices allow the trainer to identify and correct procedural errors. They also enable the trainer to spot tank crews or individuals that are having problems with a particular gunnery or tactical task. The using unit is responsible for prior planning, coordination, training the trainer, unit train-up, and external or internal evaluation. Adequate attention in these areas will ensure the highest level of success prior to the conduct of training. The device uses the latest in videodisk-based and synchronized microcomputer technology to provide a variety of target arrays, courses of fire, and tactical engagement exercises. Once an exercise is selected, the EST displays proportionately correct targets on a panoramic screen. These weapons provide the recoil and sound of real weapons firing live ammunition. The EST provides immediate or delayed on-screen feedback of all training activities, as well as printed feedback of the same. The following table depicts the equipment with which the individual soldier or squad will interface. ( Figure D-1 depicts a typical EST battle simulation area.) Although these weapons cannot be loaded with live ammunition, each has been modified to function in a realistic fashion; so that loading, firing, misfire procedures, and normal firing are performed the same as if they were the real weapons. The laser trace is used to identify shot location and determine target hits. This combination can be used as a rifle or a grenade launcher.

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When used as a rifle, its functions are exactly like the M16A2, including recoil. When used as a grenade launcher, it has no recoil. It contains a leaf sight for engaging targets out to 200 meters and a quadrant sight for engaging targets beyond 200 meters. Loading is completed by depressing the barrel latch, sliding the barrel fully forward, inserting a dummy round into the chamber, and sliding the barrel to the rear until locked. The M203 grenade launcher will not accept standard 40-mm grenades. These machine guns use the same technology used in the M16A2 rifle. They can be fired from the bipod, tripod, or assault positions. Only modified linked belts of ammunition will work with the EST's machine guns. The belt of ammunition should not be delinked, except when responding to a runaway gun; it must be relinked in exactly the same way that it was configured prior to the break. The MK 19 training weapon is an actual MK 19, mod. 3, grenade machine gun that is converted temporarily into a training weapon. The MK 19 training weapon uses a fully functioning MK 19 with special components that will mount onto the weapon. The conversion from a functional weapon to a training weapon takes less than ten minutes. Converting the training weapon back into a functional weapon also takes less than ten minutes. The training weapon is fitted with an eye-safe laser system for training purposes. The trainer produces recoil by using a pneumatic cylinder, and compresses CO 2 gas. An eye-safe laser located in the training device shows the training system where the weapon simulates launch effect by using compressed CO 2 gas. Training with the pistol can be done on silhouette targets for marksmanship proficiency and with LAPD scenarios for law enforcement purposes. The weapons supplied with the EST have been extensively modified and cannot be returned to normal operation or made to accept live ammunition. To avoid injury, always treat your EST weapon as though it was real. Never look directly into the barrel of any weapon. This section describes, briefly, the array of training exercises that can be conducted on the EST, and the training preparation required for the same. These exercises are on videodisks. EST I and II contain tactical engagement exercises. EST IV contains basic and advanced marksmanship training exercises. Consistent with all military training, EST-based training should always be conducted in accordance with the philosophy, principles, drills, tasks, and procedures contained in many military service training publications.It is possible to train a troop- or company-size unit; however, train-up must be completed prior to arrival at the EST, and a rotation plan must be developed and followed carefully. It is a flexible, low cost, realistic, and effective trainer. It can also be used as a successful retrainer during range firing and engagement skills training if soldiers are experiencing poor marksmanship skills. The system can be used in scenarios that can be linked, similar to situational training exercises, to support the lane training concept. These exercises have been developed to provide squad-size units with the opportunity to practice individual, leader, and collective skills in a simulated combat environment. Most of the exercises can be effectively initiated by issuing an OPORD. For example, a platoon leader might describe the tactical situation to the squad and then issue platoon order (OPORD or FRAGO) for conduct of the defense to the squad leader. The squad leader would then organize his squad, prepare it for combat, issue his order, and fight within the context of the EST exercise. Site maintained by: John Pike. This chapter lists those available and provides information on how to obtain them for marksmanship training. Training support centers (TSCs) are located throughout the world and are the POCs for training aids and devices. Each TSC provides training aid services to customers in their geographic area of support to include active Army units and schools, Reserve Components, and ROTC units. Several marksmanship training devices are available to aid in sustainment training. They are beneficial when ammunition is limited for training or practice exercises such as field firing on the weaponeer or zeroing and qualifying with SRTA. Some training devices are complex, costly, and in limited supply, while others are relatively simple, cheap, and in large supply. Devices and aids can be used alone or in combinations. Individuals or squads can sustain and practice basic marksmanship skills and fundamentals with devices and or aids. This exercise assists the coach and the firer in determining which eye the firer should use when engaging targets. The firer's dominant eye should be identified early in the training process to prevent unnecessary problems such as a blurred sight picture or the inability to acquire a tight shot group during the grouping exercise. The trainer closes his nondominant eye and holds his finger up in front of and just below his dominant eye to provide the soldier with an aiming point. With both eyes focused on the trainer's open eye and arms fully extended, the soldier brings the training aid up between himself and the trainer while continuing to look at the trainer's eye through the hole in the training aid. The soldier's eye the trainer sees through the hole in the training aid is the soldier's dominant eye. The card is misaligned, the soldier is instructed to establish the correct point of aim, and a trainer checks it. Several aiming drills provide an understanding of center of mass. This card may be used to ensure the soldier understands adjustment of the aiming point, how to allow for gravity, and how to engage a moving target. The sight-target relationship on the card is the same visual perception the soldier should have when he is zeroing on a standard silhouette target. Each soldier will demonstrate six out of six of the aim points. The soldier will show three side alignment techniques-place the front site post on the left or right edge of the target and bring the front site post to center of mass of the target. The soldier will then show the bottom-up alignment technique-place the front site post at the bottom of the target then bring the front site post to center of mass of the target. The Riddle sighting device ( Figure A-2 ) indicates if the soldier understands the aiming process while using the rifle. It is a small plastic plate with a magnet and a drawing of an E-type silhouette target. A two-man team is required for its use. The soldier assumes a supported or prone firing position. The assistant places the Riddle device on the front sight assembly and adjusts the plastic plate at the direction of the firer until he reports the proper sight picture. Without disturbing the plastic plate, the trainer or coach aims through the sights to determine if the soldier has aligned the target and sight properly. Many sightings are conducted, and the trainer may include variations to ensure the soldier understands the process. Each soldier will demonstrate six out of six aim points starting with the plastic plate offset to the front site post. It allows a smoother surface for attachment of the magnet. The device may also be used without the metal clip. The M16 sighting device ( Figure A-3 ) is made of metal with a tinted square of glass placed at an angle. The M16 sighting device can be mounted on the M16A2 rifle. The charging handle must be pulled to the rear first. Then, the M16 sighting device is mounted on the rear of the carrying handle, and the charging handle is returned forward. The observer must practice with the sight to be effective. For example, the observer looks at a reflected image and if the soldier is aiming to the right, it appears left to the observer. The device must be precisely positioned on the rifle (it may need to be bent to stay on). The observer's position must remain constant. At the same time, the observer talks with the firer to ensure a correct analysis of the aiming procedures. The soldier must achieve six out of six proper site alignment drills. It is designed to keep sufficient gas in the barrel of the weapon to allow semiautomatic, automatic, or burst firing with blank ammunition (M200 only). After firing 50 rounds, the attachment should be checked for a tight fit. Continuous blank firing results in a carbon buildup in the bore, gas tube, and carrier key. When this occurs, the cleaning procedures in TM 9-1005-249-10 or TM 9-1005-249-34 should be followed. The M15A2 is painted red and is used on the M16-series weapons. The M23 is painted yellow and is used on the M4-series weapons.The target-box exercise checks the consistency of aiming and placement of three-round shot groups in a dry-fire environment ( Figure A-5 ). The two positions (separated by 15 yards or 25 meters) must have already been established so the rifle is pointed at some place on the paper.Then he moves the silhouette to another spot on the paper and indicates to the firer that he is ready for another shot. When the three shots are completed, the target man triangulates the three shots and labels it shot group number one. The firer and instructor view the shot group. Each soldier will dry fire the exercise until they have demonstrated six out of six of the aim points within the plastic target-box paddle's 4-centimeter template. The exercise should be repeated as many times as necessary to achieve two consecutive shot-groups that will fit into the same 2-centimeter circle. Since no rifle or ammunition variability is involved and since there is no requirement to place the shot group in a certain location, a 1-centimeter standard may be compared to obtaining a 4-centimeter shot group on the 25-meter live-fire zero range. The soldier fires several shot groups. After two or three shot groups are completed in one location, the rifle, paper holder, or paper is moved so shots fall on a clean section of the paper. Two devices are available to hold the rifle ( Figures A-6 and A-7 ). The rifle holding device and rifle holding box are positioned on level ground, or are secured by sandbags or stakes to ensure the rifle does not move during the firing of the three shots. Movement of the paper is eased by using a solid backing ( Figure A-8 ). Any movement of either is reflected in the size of the shot group. Several varieties of wooden target boxes have been locally fabricated. A new rifle holder has been developed and should be used ( Figure A-7 ). The visual perception during the target-box exercise is similar to what a soldier sees while zeroing on a standard zeroing target. The small E-type silhouette is the same scale at 15 yards as the larger silhouette is at the 25-meter range (some training areas are set up at 15 yards; others are set up at 25 meters). While there are some benefits to representing a 250-meter target, the main benefit of this exercise can be obtained at any distance. A standard zero target can be used at 25 meters in place of the paddle by placing a small hole in the center (dot), moving the target sheet over the paper, and marking as previously outlined. Assuming the rifle and paper remain stationary and the target man properly marks the three shots, the only factor to cause separation of the dots on the paper is error in the soldier's aiming procedure. When the soldier can consistently direct the target into alignment with the sights on this exercise, he should be able to aim at the same center-of-mass point on the zero range or on targets at actual range. This exercise is conducted on a live-fire range. The coach or designated assistant inserts a dummy round into a magazine of live rounds. In this way, the coach can detect if the firer knows when the rifle is going to fire. The firer must not know when a dummy round is in the magazine. When the hammer falls on a dummy round, which the firer thought was live, the firer and his coach may see movement. The firer anticipating the shot or using improper trigger squeeze causes this. Proper trigger squeeze results in no movement when the hammer falls. The soldier will demonstrate the ability to properly utilize the fundamentals of marksmanship six consecutive times. This dry-fire technique is used to teach or evaluate the skill of trigger squeeze and is effective when conducted from an unsupported position. When using the M16A1 rifle for this exercise, the soldier must cock the weapon, assume an unsupported firing position, and aim at the target. An assistant places a dime (washer) on the rifle's barrel between the flash suppressor and front sight post assembly. The soldier then tries to squeeze the trigger naturally without causing the dime (washer) to fall off. Several repetitions of this exercise must be conducted to determine if the soldier has problems with trigger squeeze. The purpose of the exercise is for the firer to dry-fire six of six consecutive shots without causing the dime or washer to fall. (Repeat this exercise from the prone unsupported firing position.) Also, the strength of the hammer spring on some rifles can make this a difficult exercise to perform. After training requirements have been established, appropriate training aids and devices can be selected from the TSC. To help in selecting these aids and devices, many of those available and their identification numbers are listed in Table 2. Table A-3 lists the description and NSN to use when ordering marksmanship targets. The device uses acoustical triangulation to compute the exact location of a supersonic bullet as it passes through a target. The bullet impact is displayed instantly on a video monitor at the firing line. Of more importance, it shows the location of a bullet miss, allowing the firer to make either a sight adjustment or a hold-off for subsequent shots. In locations where known distance (KD) ranges are not available and restrictions prohibit walking downrange, LOMAH is a practical alternative to essential downrange feedback. Requests for LOMAH devices should be sent to: Commander, US Army Training Support Center, ATIC-DM, Fort Eustis, VA 23604. The RFA can be useful for marksmanship training such as night fire, quick fire, and assault fire. It is not recommended for primary marksmanship training. When service ammunition is in short supply, the RFA can be used to complement a unit's training program. Under ideal training conditions, the RFA should be used with dedicated rifles. Finding the right match of RFA and rifle can eliminate some variability. A trial-and-error technique can match RFAs to rifles, which results in good firing weapons. The RFA cannot be depended on to fire in the same place as 5.56-mm ammunition. It is not necessary for the soldier to use his own weapon during RFA training. It normally fires a slightly larger shot group than 5.56-mm ammunition. When a soldier uses an RFA in his rifle, he must be careful not to lose his 5.56-mm zero. This can be accomplished by using hold-off while firing.22-caliber ammunition or keeping a record of sight changes so the sights can be moved back. The.22-caliber round approximates the 5.56-mm trajectory out to 25 meters. The correct zeroing target or appropriate scaled-silhouette targets can be used for practice firing exercises at 15 meters (50 feet) or 25 meters. If the RFA is used as a training aid, the advantages and disadvantages must be considered during training. RFA training can be used to sustain marksmanship skills during periods when full caliber 5.56-mm ammunition training cannot be conducted. These differences include the forward assist not working, and the bolt not locking to the rear after the last round is fired. More malfunctions can occur with the RFA than with 5.56-mm ammunition, and immediate-action procedures are different. The M862 has a maximum range of 250 meters. The blue plastic projectile reduces the risk of over-penetration and ricochet, which makes it ideal for urban operations training. The M2 practice bolt consists of a bolt carrier, which is a fixed bolt. The practice bolt changes the weapon from a gas-operated action to a blow-back action that permits cyclic fire with the lower-powered M862. It is not designed to replace live-fire training or to eliminate the need for knowledgeable instructors. The MACS provides additional practice for those units without access to adequate range facilities, or that have other resource constraints. The system can be used for developing and sustaining marksmanship skills, diagnosing and correcting problems, and assessing basic skills. The operational temperature range is 40 degrees to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The Weaponeer must be protected from the elements, and should not be subjected to excessive vibration, high dust levels, or condensing humidity.The rifle, with the exception of smoke and cartridge ejection, operates normally, and has the same weight and balance as the standard weapon. An infrared aiming sensor simulates round trajectory and hit point to an accuracy of better than one-minute-of-angle. The recoil rod that attaches at the muzzle end of the rifle simulates recoil. Recoil is provided in both semiautomatic and automatic modes of fire, and is adjustable from no-net force to 30 percent more than that of a live M16. Sound is provided through headphones and is adjustable from 115 to 135 decibels. Special magazines are used. One magazine simulates a continuous load; the other (used to train rapid magazine change) can be loaded with 1 to 30 simulated rounds. Selectable misfire can be used to detect gun shyness and drill immediate action. The front and rear sights are zeroed the same as standard rifles. The target assembly contains four targets: a scaled 25-meter zero target and three pop-up targets are standard. E-type and F-type silhouettes at ranges from 75 meters can be used on the Weaponeer. Known-distance and various other types of targets can be used and be displayed in fixed or random sequences. Target exposure times may be set to unlimited or from 1 to 30 seconds. The fall-when-hit mode can be selected with the KILL button. The back of the console has counters that total rounds and hours, and a storage bin for storing magazines, printer paper and ribbon, headphones, two wrenches for assembling the Weaponeer, and a small allen wrench for aligning the rifle sensor. A remote control, which attaches to the back of the console, enables a trainer or firer to operate select functions away from the console. Lighting the KILL button enables the fall-when-hit mode. When the button is activated, targets fall when hit. This feedback provides the same hit or miss information as a train-fire (RETS) range. When a firer aims on or near a target, his aiming point relative to the target is continuously displayed on the video screen. The aiming point display allows the trainer to teach and verify aiming techniques, and to continuously monitor the firer's steadiness, techniques, time on target, trigger squeeze, and recovery from recoil. When a shot is fired, its impact relative to the target is immediately displayed on the video screen as a blinking white dot ( Figure A-12, left target). To show the sequence, the dots have been numbered. Then he presses the REPLAY button. Some Weaponeers record and store replays for just the first three shots. Each impact is indicated by a white dot, which blinks when indicating the last shot. All 32 shots can be fired and displayed on a single target, or split among a combination of targets. The CLEAR button erases all shots from the Weaponeer memory. Pressing the PRINT button causes the target displayed on the video to print. (Sample printouts are shown in Figure A-13.) Some Weaponeers can print the three pop-up targets at the same time by holding in the REPLAY button and pressing the PRINT button. In BRM, the Weaponeer is used to evaluate the firer's ability to apply the four fundamentals. It is used throughout the program to help diagnose and remediate problems. In the unit, the Weaponeer should be used much like it is used in BRM. Concurrent use of the Weaponeer at the rifle range provides valuable remedial training. One trainer operates the system while three to six soldiers observe the training. Soldiers should rotate, each receiving several short turns on the system. Where high throughput is required, consolidation of available Weaponeers may be considered. A nervous soldier will have trouble learning and gaining confidence in his marksmanship skills. For sustainment training, encourage competition between individuals or units. One is firing and four are observing, awaiting their turns on the device. The video screen is carefully positioned just outside the vision of the firer, but the firer can easily turn his head to see replays and hit points. The position of the trainer is also important so he can see both the firer and video screen. This is a good position for detecting and correcting firing faults. When the firer is in the standing supported firing position, the console should be placed on a table so the trainer can see the video screen above the firer's rifle ( Figure A-15 ). Observers can see the targets, firer, and video screen and learn procedures that speed up training and help avoid firing faults. To use the Weaponeer in a mobile configuration, it must be shock mounted. (The manufacturer's conceptual mobile training unit is shown in Figure A-16.) The TSC, Fort Benning, Georgia, has adopted a mobile mounting stand for supporting the Weaponeer range assembly and computer console ( Figure A-17 ). The following seven-step program is recommended as a guide. Depending on the extent of the firer's problems and time constraints, the number of shots may be increased. If there is no aiming dot on the video screen or if the aiming dot is far from target center, teach sight picture to the firer. If excessive movement is shown by the light dot, check and correct the techniques of the steady position and natural point of aim. Watch the video screen and soldier as he fires. Note violations of the four fundamentals. In Figure A-12, the target on the right shows a numbered series of 16 shots. Dots 1 through 4 indicate that the firer approached the target from high right. Dots 5 through 15 show that he is aiming near the center of the target but does not have a steady position. The sudden shift from dot 15 to 16 (dot 16 is the hit point of the shot) indicates that gun-shyness or improper trigger squeeze caused the firer to pull his aiming point down and to the right just before firing. Replay helps the firer understand and correct his firing errors. Use replay to show the firer his firing faults. This could be enough to correct the error. Diagnosis needs to be followed up with remedial exercises either with the Weaponeer, target-box exercise, or dime washer exercise. Sustainment training and prequalification refresher training can be conducted with the Weaponeer, depending on availability. Emphasize tight, consistently placed shot groups. Starting with the closest target and working out to the most distant, direct the soldier to practice slow precision fire at each target (supported and prone unsupported positions). Emphasize speed and precision. Direct him to slow fire at random pop-up targets with short exposure times (both firing positions). The Weaponeer can aid in the objective assessment of basic marksmanship. Periodic Weaponeer diagnosis should be conducted and recorded. Each soldier fires until zeroed on the Weaponeer. If unable to zero in 9 to 15 rounds, he should be withdrawn from testing and given remedial training. The soldier fires a surrogate record-fire scenario according to the following: Presentation of the targets is controlled by the operator who uses the target buttons. The scaled 100-meter and 250-meter targets (or 75 meters, 175 meters, and 300 meters) are presented in a mixed order according to a planned schedule. Targets are presented in a ratio of three 250-meter targets to one 100-meter target (or three 300-meter, two 175-meter to one 75-meter). A 64-target scenario consisting of two 32-target scenarios (the first engaged from the supported position; the second from the prone unsupported position) is conducted with a short break between. Exposure time is four seconds for the scaled 250-meter targets (or 175 meters) and two seconds for the scaled 100-meter target (or 75 meters). The time between target exposures should be varied from one to eight seconds. A score of 41 hits out of the 64 targets indicates soldiers can proceed to actual record fire. Soldiers who score lower than 41 should receive remedial training. It will then transition to PEO-STRI's life-cycle contractor support (LCCS) umbrella contract for the life of the system. The EST 2000 replicates eleven weapons including the rifle, carbine, pistol, grenade launcher, all machine guns, MK19, shotgun, and AT4. The EST 2000 has three modes of training: The EST 2000 uses Army standard courses of fire for all small-arms weapons. It accurately simulates live-fire ranges in daylight and limited visibility conditions using precision-scaled targets, high-resolution imagery, and essential weapons' system accuracy to compensate for errors (drift, parallax). The EST 2000 isolates, captures, and displays shots with replay that highlights shooter's errors in the application of the fundamentals of marksmanship. Replay of the aim-point trace (before the shot, during the shot, and after the shot) diagnoses shooter problems with aiming, breathing, steady hold, trigger control, and shot recovery for on-the-spot corrections. Cant sensors visually indicate shooter-induced right or left cant possibly resulting in missed shots. The EST 2000 provides fully articulated interactive targets with variable outcomes based on a squad's action or inaction. It uses other special effects to enhance the static eye point of the battlefield to include weapon's effects, explosions, and vehicle damage. The EST 2000 allows the trainer and unit to build scenarios as they would fight. Feedback provided by the EST 2000 to the shooters is shot-by-shot and is tied to each shooter's lane of fire. Most importantly, the tactical collective exercises train squad, team, and element leaders in fire distribution and control. The EST 2000 uses video-based graphic overlays with multiple escalation or de-escalation points that require the shooter to justify his actions based on his situational awareness. By using the video-based graphic overlays, EST 2000 can be configured to enhance special operations and counterterrorism training. It is also the premier training simulation for stability and support operations training.